Masculinity femininity and leadership: Taking a closer look at the alpha female

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Cross-culturally, low scores have been associated with a range of health indices, including depression, cardiovascular risk, diabetes, respiratory illness, and mortality Picture Story Exercise Need for Power scale PSE N Pow; Winter,Implicit motives for power Eight pictures depicting various scenes are briefly presented. Respondents are given five minutes to write a story about what is happening in each scene. Scores are based on the frequency of power themes. Several versions of the IAT have shown acceptable internal consistency Achieves higher correlations with laboratory measures of dominant behavior than do self-rating scales Open in a separate window Self-Report Measures Self-report measures are popular, in part because of their ease of administration, but also because scales have been developed to index the separable components of the DBS — namely, dominance motivation, dominance behavior, self-perceived power and shame. The most commonly used self-report measure of dominance motivation is the dominance subscale of the Personality Research Form PRFbut as shown in Table 1many other broad personality scales include subscales to assess dominance behavior or motivation. Two caveats are important, though. First, many self-report instruments contain items that combine both motivational and behavioral components of the DBS. Second, self-report ratings of dominance motivation and behavior may be susceptible to systematic biases. As shown in Table 1implicit measures of dominance motivation have also demonstrated strong validity in predicting emotions, behavior, and biological indices in laboratory studies of social dominance.

Altogether relevant data are within the copy and its Supporting Information files. This review revealed 2 predominant alpha lady representations in the literature—one more male versus one more feminine—and 21 alpha female variables. The measure of male traits was identified as the barely predictor of alpha female status at the same time as per the multiple regression model. Amusingly, both alpha and non-alpha women scored the same for the measure of feminine traits. Further, both groups scored higher for feminine traits than male traits. The results also revealed so as to neither social dominance nor sexual ascendancy were predictors of alpha female category which challenge academic and popularized representations of this identity. Popularized narratives after that discourse within this context rely arrange analogies between human and primate behavior [ 1 — 4 ], [ 16 ], [ 32 — 36 ]. In the West, alpha women have been described both within the context of masculinity and femininity. This approach however, does not allow close into our understanding of whether women who are classified as alpha, accept or even occupy the alpha lady identity.

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The correlation is, however, significant in the raw data of species throughout the primate order, but this is barely due to lemur species. Discussion The correlation between female dominance and the percentage of males is weaker all the rage egalitarian than despotic groups both all the rage our empirical data and in the model Table 1. In the archetypal, it is caused by the beefy subordinance of females to males accordingly that even with more males all the rage the group, most of the females do not reach dominance over a few of the males. Similar to these results of the model, in classless groups of M. Similarly, in groups of several egalitarian macaque species lady dominance is significantly lower than all the rage despotic species median female dominance classless of 0. Note that weaker lady dominance in egalitarian groups compared en route for despotic ones confirms our earlier calculation based on DomWorld [11][38][45]. The connotation of the correlation between female ascendancy over males and sexual dimorphism all the rage the raw data depends on the inclusion of lemurs. In this taxon effects of sexual dimorphism may be confused with other features leading en route for female dominance, such as masculinised genitals [36][46].

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